The concept of “mutual air surveillance” was proposed to Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Bulganin at the 1955 Geneva Conference by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower; The Soviets, however, immediately rejected the concept and put several years to sleep. The treaty was finally signed in 1989 as the initiative of U.S. President (and former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency) George H. W. Bush. The agreement negotiated by NATO members and the Warsaw Pact was signed on 24 March 1992 in Helsinki, Finland.  The United States officially withdrew on November 22, 2020.  Recently, the United Arab Emirates expressed interest in an Open Sky agreement with India.
This treaty is not related to the open skies agreements of civil aviation.  Open skies regulations include the area over which the parties exercise sovereignty, including continental islands and inland and territorial waters. The treaty stipulates that the entire territory of a Member State is open to observation. Observation flights should be limited only for aviation safety reasons and not for national security reasons.  “You need an open skies policy. You can`t be protected and at the same time say you want to become a hub. Open skies policy and the fifth and sixth freedoms are two distinct themes,” Albanna said in a webinar organized by the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The UAE is keen to have an open sky agreement with India, its Ambassador to India A.R. Albanna said on Wednesday. Since 2002, 40 missions have been organised over the UK. There were 24 quota missions carried out by: Russia – 20; Ukraine – three; and Sweden – one. There were 16 training flights from: Benelux (jointly with Estonia); Estonia (in conjunction with the Benelux); Georgia – three (a commune with Sweden); Sweden – three (a commune with Georgia); United States – three; Latvia; Lithuania; Romania; Slovenia; Yugoslavia.
 Also since 2002, the United Kingdom has carried out a total of 51 open-air missions – 38 quota missions in the following countries: Ukraine (five); Georgia (seven) and Russia (26); 13 missions were training missions in the following nations: Bulgaria; Yugoslavia; Estonia; Slovenia (three); Sweden (three); United States; Latvia, Lithuania and Benelux. Flights cost approximately $50,000 per mission and approximately $25,000 for training missions with approximately $175,000 per year.  Read also: Coronavirus International lines open on a case-by-case basis: 34 years later, the DGCA was reintroduced by US President George H. W. Bush to build trust and security between all the countries of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. In February 1990, an open-air international conference opened in Ottawa, Canada, with the participation of all NATO Pact and Warsaw Pact countries. Rounds of negotiations were then held in Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria; Helsinki, Finland.  India has agreed with Saudi Arabia to increase its capacity by 8,000 seats per week from the IATA season, when the Indian airline`s occupancy rate will reach 80%. This was a response to the needs of increased traffic between the two countries, where Indian airlines used the open skies in Damman to operate more flights than the Saudi side.
The “open skies” treaty is indefinite and open to the accession of other states. The republics of the former Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.), which are not yet contracting parties, can join at any time. Applications from other interested countries are subject to a consensus decision by the Open Skis Advisory Board (OSCC).  Since it came into force in 2002, eight countries have joined the treaty: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia and Sweden. Austria, Cyprus, Ireland, Switzerland, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Northern Macedonia, Moldova, Armenia and Uzbekistan are particularly absent.